Kutchko, B. G., B.R. Strazisar, N. Huerta, et al., “CO2 Reaction with Hydrated Class H Well Cement under Geologic Sequestration Conditions: Effects of Flyash Admixtures,” Environmental Science & Technology 43(10), 3947-3952, 2009.
The rate and mechanism of reaction of pozzolan-amended Class H cement exposed to both supercritical CO2 and CO2-saturated brine were determined under geologic sequestration conditions to assess the potential impact of cement degradation in existing wells on CO2 storage integrity. The pozzolan additive chosen, Type F flyash, is the most common additive used in cements for well sealing in oil-gas field operations. The 35:65 and 65:35 (v/v) pozzolan−cement blends were exposed to supercritical CO2 and CO2-saturated brine and underwent cement carbonation. Extrapolation of the carbonation rate for the 35:65 case suggests a penetration depth of 170−180 mm for both the CO2-saturated brine and supercritical CO2 after 30 years. Despite alteration in both pozzolan systems, the reacted cement remained relatively impermeable to fluid flow after exposure to brine solution saturated with CO2, with values well below the American Petroleum Institute recommended maximum well cement permeability of 200 μD. Analyses of 50:50 pozzolan−cement cores from a production well in a sandstone reservoir exhibited carbonation and low permeability to brine solution saturated with CO2, which are consistent with our laboratory findings.
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