Powdered Metals in Additive Manufacturing (AM) and Powder Metallurgy (PM)
Metal additive manufacturing and powder metallurgy, rely on the quality of powdered metals, feedstock material and the optimization of equipment and process parameters to yield the highest quality parts. Demanding applications such as aerospace, power generation, medical/dental and military, are particularly exacting, as defects or discontinuities could result in unpredictable or even catastrophic failure. For example, ceramic contaminants in metal powder feedstock can become incorporated into parts built using the AM powder bed fusion method, creating internal discontinuities that may concentrate stresses and contribute to fatigue crack initiation when the product is in service.
Feedstock quality assessment
RJ Lee Group offers an extensive array of analytical methods and techniques appropriate to each powdered metals sample, whether virgin and recycled feedstock material is used.
- Powdered Metals (Laser or Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion, or Directed Energy Deposition)
- Bulk chemistry
- Particle by Particle (PxP) using computer-controlled SEM
- Particle size distribution (PSD)
- Shape factors (aspect ratio, roundness, roughness) per ASTM F1877
- Surface detail captured in PxP images
- Cross-Contamination (particles of undesired alloy present in subject alloy)
- Non-Metallic / Ceramic / Oxide / Carbonaceous Contaminants
Heavy Liquid Separation for Contaminant Detection
RJ Lee Group specializes in the characterization of powdered metals and entrained contaminants for both Additive and Subtractive Manufacturing/Powder Metallurgy. Standard computer controlled scanning electron microscopy techniques can be applied for characterization of relatively abundant contaminant particulates, however for contaminants present at levels on the order of parts per billion in metal powder our unique method, called Heavy Liquid Separation (HLS), extracts and directly identifies non-metallic contaminants present in metal powder feedstock samples of powders to be used in high performance applications.
Characterization for All Types of Additive Manufacturing / 3D Printing
- Feedstock Material
- Powders, particulates, wires, strands, sheets, fibers, etc.
- Metals and alloys, ceramics, polymers, concrete, etc.
- Cleanliness, contaminant identification, particle size distribution, shape factors, compositions, cross-contamination, hollow powder
- Final Part Evaluation
- Microstructure and porosity
- Montage of large areas (optical or SEM)
- Distribution/orientation of particles or fibers
- Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EDBD) for grain size and orientation
- Fractography and failure analysis
- Hardness and mechanical properties
- Microstructure and porosity
- Environment and Safety
- Possible environmental emissions resulting from AM processes
For more information on our Powdered Metals and general services for Additive Manufacturing and Powder Metallurgy, please contact us at 1.800.860.1775 or click the button below. We will respond to your message shortly.