We provide testing services to certify product and materials compliance, support quality control, and ensure the health and safety of workers and their environment. We provide assistance for clients who are not sure what tests they need. Our accredited materials characterization laboratory is the foundation of all the services of RJ Lee Group provides, including standardized testing for compliance, industrial hygiene and environmental analyses, quality control, and materials research and development.

We provide credentialed expertise supported built by robust scientific data. We provide significant support to industrial clients for product development, industrial hygiene and overall production support.

RJ Lee Group maintains a visible and respected reputation within the legal community, having offered scientific support in civil litigation matters for nearly 30 years. 

  • Product Liability 
  • Toxic Tort
  • Construction Defect
  • Fugitive Emission
  • Personal Injury
  • Patent Infringement
  • Contract Disputes
  • Insurance Subrogation

Subject Matter Experts

From our core business of providing scientific solutions to our clients, we have developed innovative products. Some are produced internally, and some have arisen from partnerships with other research organizations. 

For example, we build lab software solutions to help manage and streamline your labs data, and environmental testing products for a variety of applications. 

  • IntelliSEM is a powerful automated particle analysis system.
  • ParticleID is  a customizable cloud hosted web application used to identify foreign particulate matter and  assist with root cause investigations. 

Other products we create count particles and help keep the air and environment safe.

RJ Lee Group is a materials analysis laboratory and consulting company which serves many different industries. We offer scientific solutions such as industrial forensics services, laboratory and testing services, litigation support, and laboratory software to many industries:

Graphene – Carbon’s Fascinating Allotrope

RJ Lee Group News

October 22, 2015

Article by Mark Sparrow
This article discussing graphene in Raman spectroscopy is the second in a series of  posts by Scientist Mark Sparrow, an expert in Raman Spectroscopy analysis, electron and optical microscopy, EDS, FTIR spectroscopy, thermal methods and mercury porosimetry. 

Carbon has the most allotropes, which are forms of carbon that differ from each other at the molecular level and exhibit different chemical and physical properties, than any other element. Graphite is one of the three naturally occurring carbon allotropes, a form of carbon that consists of hundreds of thousands of layers. Graphene is a single layer of graphite, and was first successfully isolated as an allotrope in 2004 by researchers at the University of Manchester. Only a single atom thick, it is the thinnest and strongest material known to exist. New applications and uses for graphene are rapidly being developed, and there has been a surge in graphene-related patents in recent years. However, difficulty in producing high-quality graphene has limited the commercial possibilities of devices using this material.

Why Identifying Graphene Quality Is Important

Graphene is not naturally occurring, so it must be grown. One of the most common and reliable methods is to grow graphene in layers from crystals of silicon carbide. This does present some challenges, however, such as finding the best substrate on which to grow the layers, as well as determining the best way to remove the layers without modifying their structure. The number of layers, chemical and physical properties determine how graphene performs. The graphene’s thickness can also have an effect on the electronic and physical properties, making the correct identification of the numbers of layers extremely important for technology R&D or product development. Raman spectroscopy has been used to characterize graphene from the outset, due to its ability to accurately and easily probe the structure of graphene, and even map single and multiple layers of the allotrope.

The Role of the Raman

Raman spectroscopy has long been used to characterize carbon in its many forms due to its ability to distinguish between its many allotropes. There are two primary features to most carbon spectra:

  • D-band or the “disorder” band, and
  • G-band or the “graphitic” band.

Raman spectroscopy uses band technology for material analysis, such as graphene testing.

When characterizing graphene, the G-band and the 2nd order band are important because they are sensitive to the number of graphene layers present. The G-band and the 2nd order band also show reproducible frequency shifts between 1, 2, 3 and 4-layer graphene, enabling the analyst to measure and image the number of layers in graphene with a high degree of accuracy.

Raman spectroscopy is a key technique in meeting the challenge to accurately analyze and identify graphene layers and their physical properties to help speed development of new applications.

To learn more about raman spectroscopy, please contact one of our experts.

Related Posts

PTR-MS and Indoor Air Research

PTR-MS and Indoor Air Research

Indoor air quality research continues to grow substantially over the last several years. Most research prior to the 2010’s was focused on outdoor...